The United States of America is the country that produces shale gas essentially. You can get to know about them everywhere in North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The production in the US rose from 2% to 23% overall gas production with the rise in the trend in 2000-2010 which is still on.
What is Shale?
The formation of clay, mud slit, and organic matter in the shale. It is the sedimentary rock which is a compressed grain-like substance. It is used in the making of shale gas.
Meaning of Shale gas
The tiny pore spaces allow the natural gas to get trapped within it, called shale gas, in the shale formation. The gas mixture is a hydrocarbon, and it mainly consists of methane in the formation of shale. Other natural gas options include liquids like propane, butane, and ethane. It also contains leading gases like nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon-di-oxide.
Working of fracking and horizontal drilling
Horizontal drilling is a process that allows drilling several thousand meters vertically, which is almost 6000 meters deep, and then after the temperature reaches 90°, it starts drilling horizontally.
It can help to drill multiple target zones from one telling pad. It enlarges productivity and recoverable reserves. Because of this, the production rate is increased significantly, which also helps the company work more effectively and efficiently.
Fracking or hydraulic fracturing
The creation of fractures in the formation of shale to release the gases present is known as fracking.
Under the high pressure of 100 bar, the fracturing fluid is pumped into the drilling pipe so that it can widen the fractures which are already within the rock or create a new one. Water is mainly used for the fluid And mixed with quartz sand and 0.5-2% of 3-12 chemicals. The drilling companies have kept the exact compositions a secret. Around 7- 15 Million litres of water is being used for one well.
The cracks are held by the sand, which increases the amount of natural gas to be extracted. The chemical used maybe gel, which increases the viscosity of the fracking fluid for the transportation of the sand and forming agents like Nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which helps transport the sand. The biocides will do organic components, the prevention of growth of bacteria, and acids like acetic acid, boric acid, or formic acid to disintegrate the minerals in the formation of Rock and the Agents of anti-corrosion will help to protect the site whenever any acid is added.
The water solution of around 50-70% is recovered, and the remaining water stays in the ground. The contamination with Chemicals is done for the recovered water and Salt from the rock formation. It is either directly disposed of into the treatment facilities or transported.