As the demand for natural gas and oil increases, the technology has strived to develop new steps, processes, and techniques to make the whole process easier and efficient. The primary method that an oil and gas company includes exploration, production, extraction, transportation, and refining. But did you know that extraction, a part of the process, takes seven stunning steps to get completed? Crazy, isn’t it?
So, let us look at each of the steps and learn about them one after the other!
1. Preparation of the rig site:
The first step involves building pads and access roads, setting up the land, and drilling. Right from the beginning to end, everything from designated access roads and traffic plans to safety procedures and noise barriers is judiciously planned and monitored based on state and local laws. Moreover, one needs to make sure that the site is prepared for drilling, roads are developed and maintained well for a steady flow of traffic and from the site.
Initially, the drill rig will be brought to about 20 to 30 truckloads; and put together. To unlock the oil and natural gas trapped in the ground, it is necessary to build the infrastructure. In the first stage of this step, the surface hole is drilled down to 100 feet. After drilling the long gap, a unique technology ensures that the oil and gas are trapped.
3. Cementing and testing the pipe:
After drilling and reaching the target distance, the drilled pipe is subjected to removal, and a steel pipe will be pushed into the bottom of the ground. After cementing, various rigorous tests are performed so that the tube is passed with impermeability test before the production of natural gas or oil could occur.
4. Completion of well:
The workers lower a perforating gun below the ground and fire it into the rock layer, right before the drillers can indulge in tapping the natural gas or oil and fossil fuels. This results in holes and connects the rock holding the oil and natural gas and the top surface of the well.
As the well is kept open, it is time for natural gas or oil flow. There are specialised instruments primarily made up of water, common chemicals, and sand pumped through the holes created in the previous step, freeing the trapped natural gas or oil.
6. Production and recycling of the fluids:
After the fracking method, as the natural gas starts flowing from the well created, the oil is extracted and recycled for usage in future circumstances.
7. Abandonment of well and restoration of land:
As the ground is being dug, and the well was created before the extraction of natural gas or oil, the well is subjected to the abandonment process and permanently plugged; the land will be restored just like how it was before the first stage of extraction.